Subjective Well-Being, Spirituality And Immunity of Islamic Lecturing Members When Facing The Covid-19 Pandemy
The covid-19 pandemic, which affects almost all of the world's population, not only disrupts human physical health due to its rapid and massive transmission. This fact also makes the panic and anxiety of all elements of society, even very disturbing economic stability that has been neatly arranged. The COVID - 19 pandemic has impacted to reduce immunity. One way to improve it is to improve spiritually. Spirituality such as meditation habits, praying, reading scriptures and conducting religious ritual activities can reduce emotional reactions to stress and cause relaxation. This study aims to determine the relationship of spirituality with immunity, subjective well-being with immunity as well as the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being with immunity in Islamic lecturing members when facing pandemic COVID - 19. The subject of this study was the study congregation in several regions in Indonesia, amounting to 135 people. The sampling technique used was accidental sampling. Analysis of the data used is linear regression analysis. The results showed that the significance number p = 0.000 <0.005 and the correlation coefficient is 0.444. Thus it can be stated that there is a significant positive relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being with immunity
Ader, R., Cohen, N., & Felten, D. (1995). Psychoneuroimmunology: Interactions between the nervous system and the immune system. The Lancet, 345(8942), 99–103.
Aditama, D. (2017a). Hubungan Antara Spiritualitas Dan Stres Pada Mahasiswa Yang Mengerjakan Skripsi. 24.
Aditama, D. (2017b). The relationship between spirituality and stress in students working on thesis. Jurnal El Tarbawi, N0(2), 39–62.
Ahmadi, Z., Darabzadeh, F., Nasiri, M., & Askari, M. (2015). The Effects of Spirituality and Religiosity on Well-Being of People With Cancer: A Literature Review on Current Evidences. Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.5812/jjcdc.28386
Akil, H., & Morano, M. (1995). Stress in Bloom FE and Kupfer DJ. Psychopharmacology. Raven Press.
Astuti, R., Yosep, I., & Susanti, R. D. (2015). Pengaruh Intervensi SEFT (Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique) terhadap Penurunan Tingkat Depresi Ibu Rumah Tangga dengan HIV. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran, 3(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v3i1.98
Batuqayan, S. M., & Mai, M. M. (2012). Stress, stain and coping mechanisms: An experimental study of fresh college students. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 19–29.
Bukhari, R., & Khanam, S. J. (2015). Happiness and life satisfaction among depressed and non depressed university student. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14(2), 49–59.
Burton, R. F., Hinton, J. W., Neilson, E., & Beastall, G. (1996). Concentrations of Sodium, Potassium and Cortisol in Saliva, and Selfreported Chronic Work Stress Factors. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Biol Psychol, 42(3), 425–438.
Chance, M., Kathryn, L., & Jane, S. (1994). Stress and Disease in “Pathophysiology. Mosby.
Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31(2), 103–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01207052
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34
Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy People Live Longer: Subjective Well-being Contributes to Health and Longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 1–43.
Diener, E., Napa Scollon, C., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). The Evolving Concept of Subjective Well-Being: The Multifaceted Nature of Happiness. Dalam E. Diener (Ed.), Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (hlm. 67–100). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_4
Diener, E., & Tay, L. (2015). Subjective well-being and human welfare around the world as reflecte in the Gallup World Poll. International Journal of Psychology, 50(2), 135–149.
Diener.E., S., C.N., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). The Evolving Concept of Subjective Well-Being: The Multifaceted nature of happiness. Dalam Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology (hlm. 15,187-215).
Elenkov, I. J., Iezzoni, D. G., Daly, A., Harris, A. G., & Chrousos, G. P. (2005). Cytokine Dysregulation, Inflammation and Well-Being. Neuroimmunomodulation, 12(5), 255–269. https://doi.org/10.1159/000087104
Ferrell, B., Otis-Green, S., & Economou, D. (2013). Spirituality in Cancer Care at the End of Life. The Cancer Journal, 19(5), 431–437. https://doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0b013e3182a5baa5
Greenberg, J. (2002). Comprehensive Stress Management. McGraw Hill.
Hamdana, F., & Alhamdu, A. (2015). Subjective Well-Being dan Prestasi Belajar Siswa Akselerasi MAN 3 Palembang. Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami, 1(2), 115–124.
Joshi, U. (2010). Subjective Well-Being by Gender. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 1(1), 20–26. https://doi.org/10.22610/jebs.v1i1.211
Julianto, V. & Subandi. (2015). Reading al-Fatihah is intuitive to reduce depression and enhance immunity. Jurnal Psikologi, 42, 34–46.
Larasati, I. (2017). Hubungan Antara Dukungan Sosial dan Optimisme Dengan Subjective Well-being Pada Remaja Tuna Daksa Di BBRSBD Prof. DR. Soeharso Surakarta. Universitas Sebelas Maret.
Lines, D. (2002). Counseling within a New Spiritual Paradigm. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(3), 102–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/00267802042003006
Lisdiana. (2012). Regulasi Kortisol Pada Kondisi Stres Dan Addiction. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 4(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v4i1.2264
Mahsun. (2004). Making friends with Stress. Prima Media.
Muzakkiyah, N., & Suharnan. (2016). Religiusitas, Penyesuaian Diri dan Subjektive Well Being. Persona:Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 5(01), Article 01. https://doi.org/10.30996/persona.v5i01.739
Peteet, J. R., & Balboni, M. J. (2013). Spirituality and religion in oncology. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63(4), 280–289.
Prasetyo, D. (2006). Psychoneuroimmunology for Nursing. Eddition 2. UNS Press.
Schiffrin, H. H., & Nelson, S. K. (2010). Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9104-7
Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2013). Subjective Well-Being and Income: Is There Any Evidence of Satiation? American Economic Review, 103(3), 598–604. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.3.598
Tangdilintin. (2008). Coaching Young Generation. Kanisius.
Underwood, L. G. (2011). The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: Overview and Results. Religions, 2(1), 29–50. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel2010029
Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2401_04
Utami, T. N. (2017). Literature review of the mechanism of remembrance of health: Immune response. Jurnal Jumantik, 2(1), 100–110.
Wardhana, M. (2011). Psychoneuroimmunology In The Field Of Dermatology. MDVI, 38(4), 175–180.
Authors who publish with us agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the publisher right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this proceeding.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the proceeding's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this proceeding.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories, pre-prints sites or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater dissemination of published work